What is an AI?
AI is a set of concepts, tools, and techniques that represents huge disruptive and transformative potential. Definition-wise, we can think of AI simply as intelligence exhibited by machines that can be used in a beneficial way (e.g., carrying out tasks, making decisions, assisting humans, saving lives). More specifically, AI describes when a machine is able to learn from information (data), generate some degree of understanding, and then use the knowledge learned to do something. AI includes machine learning and specific techniques such as deep learning as subsets.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) involves using computers to do things that traditionally require human intelligence. This means creating algorithms to classify, analyze, and draw predictions from data. It also involves acting on data, learning from new data, and improving over time. Just like a tiny human child growing up into a (sometimes) smarter human adult.

Image for post
Image for post

AI is also used to control the navigation of satellites and other spacecraft. The AI is able to look at the patterns of other satellites, planets, and space debris. … These AI-enabled systems are able to determine the amount of power and frequencies that are needed to transmit data back to Earth or to other satellites. Most of the space companies are using AI to enhance their research

1.AI in NASA
By using AI to do an initial analysis of the data after it is collected but before it is sent back to Earth, NASA can optimize what we receive, which greatly increases the scientific value of space missions.

According to research, NASA claims that Sanskrit — the ancient Hindu language is the most suitable language to develop computer programming for their Artificial Intelligence program. Sanskrit has always been an important language in intellectual communities

The Exo Mars mission to find life on Mars moved a step closer to take-off this week after NASA unveiled the first results of an AI system that will support the search.
The former Space Race rivals of Russia and the US plan to use AI to scan rocks on the Red Planet for signs of life. Eventually, they aim to use the system in future missions to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn.
They believe that using AI to analyze the samples and select what to send back to Earth will overcome the challenges of transmitting data between planets.
As Eric Lyness, software lead in the Planetary Environments Lab at NASA‘s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), explained this week:

It costs a lot of time and money to send the data back to Earth which means scientists can’t run as many experiments or analyze as many samples as they would like. By using AI to do an initial analysis of the data after it is collected but before it is sent back to Earth, NASA can optimize what we receive, which greatly increases the scientific value of space missions.

The AI system has now been trained to analyze hundreds of rock samples and thousands of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
At the Goldschmidt Geochemistry conference this week, NASA scientists revealed the first results of the system. When the algorithm processes a spectrum from an unknown compound, it can categorize it with up to 94% accuracy, and match it to previously seen samples with 87% accuracy. They now plan to further refine the algorithm before they join the 2023 mission to Mars.

Image for post
Image for post

SpaceX is flying an artificially intelligent robot named CIMON to the International Space Station

CIMON, as it is known (an acronym for Crew Interactive Mobile Companion), is designed to help astronauts on board the International Space Station perform their work — namely the science experiments they are sent aboard the orbiting laboratory.
It became the first AI technology launched to the space station, officials said, an experiment that would be a sort of Alexa in space, able to help astronauts through the steps outlined in a manual, show pictures of certain parts of the experiment and answer questions about it.
The idea to is ease the burden on astronauts in space, where life can get tough and tedious, but not ever supplant them, or their decisions, officials said. Built by Airbus and powered by Watson, IBM’s supercomputer, CIMON looks like an oversized head. It will be guided by cameras and voice commands, able to hold a conversation, and relay information to commanders on the ground.

CIMON would be able to “play videos, read books,” Schulien said. “It even has the ability to engage in small talk

“We never plan to replace the crew member with the artificial intelligence,” said Philipp Schulien, Airbus’s lead system engineer. “We are just there to support the crew. In the end, the human crew will always be required. The AI is not self-training.”
CIMON flew on board a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket that blasted off at 5:42 a.m. Friday from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, part of 5,900 pounds of cargo and supplies headed for the station.
Leaving a stunning contrail in the predawn sky, the launch was a significant one for SpaceX, the California space company founded by Elon Musk in 2002. It was its 12th of the year and the last one of its so-called “Block 4” version of the rocket.

Image for post
Image for post

Though it was designed specifically for German astronaut Alexander Gerst — it interacted with him during training to recognize his face and speech patterns — CIMON would work with any of the astronauts, officials said.
Gerst helped pick CIMON’s voice and the design of its face. He would be able to summon it by simply saying its name. It would then detect what direction his voice was coming from, orient itself toward him and cruise to him on its own.

How Is AI Helping To Commercialize Space?

i)AI Assisting in the Manufacturing of Satellites and Spacecraft

Satellites and spacecraft are complex and expensive pieces of equipment to put together. Within the spacecraft manufacturing operations, there are repetitive and complex tasks that need to be done with exacting measures of precision and often must be done in clean rooms with little exposure to potential contamination. AI-enabled systems and robotics are being used to help the manufacturing process and take away some of the tasks that humans currently do so that humans can focus on the parts that computers can’t assemble.

When working to assemble satellites, not only can AI help to physically speed up the process but it can analyze the process itself to see if there are ways the process can be improved. In addition, the AI is also able to look at the work that has been performed and ensure that everything is done properly. Furthermore, the use of collaborative robots (“cobots”) as part of the manufacturing process are helping to reduce the need for human workers in clean rooms, and make more reliable manufacturing steps that can be error-prone.

ii)AI-enhanced imagery

Satellites are generating thousands, if not millions, of images every minute of the day. Satellites process about 150 terabytes of data everyday. These images capture everything from weather and environmental imagery and data to images down to just inches of every inch of the globe. Capturing images of Earth automatically introduces a number of challenges and opportunities where AI is helping. Without AI, humans are mostly responsible for interpreting, understanding, and analyzing imagery. By the time a human gets around to interpreting an image, you may have to wait for the satellite to move back around to the same position to further refine image analysis.

The power of deep learning and AI-enabled recognition provides significant power in analyzing images and providing ability to review the millions of images produced by spacecraft. Artificial intelligence on the other end can analyze the images as they are being taken and determine if there are any issues with the images. Unlike humans, AI does not need to sleep or take breaks so it can rapidly process a lot of data. Using AI to capture images of Earth also prevents the need for large amounts of communication to and from Earth to analyze photos and determine whether a new photo needs to be taken. By cutting back on communication, the AI is saving processing power, reducing battery usage, and speeding up the image gathering process.

iii)Monitor the Health of Satellites

Satellites are complex pieces of equipment to operate. There are many potential problems that could arise, from equipment malfunctions to collisions with other satellites. In order to help keep satellites functioning properly, AI is used to monitor the health of satellites. AI can keep constant watch on sensors and equipment, provide alerts, and in some cases, carry out corrective action. SpaceX for example, uses AI to keep its satellites from colliding with other objects in space.

AI is also used to control the navigation of satellites and other spacecraft. The AI is able to look at the patterns of other satellites, planets, and space debris. Once the AI has found the patterns, it is able to change the path of the craft to avoid any collisions. While this is proving powerful, some AI experts have concerns about the potential vulnerability or failure of these systems. Experts believe that with AI navigation installed on a spacecraft, that the craft becomes more vulnerable. Turning to AI for cybersecurity and craft health monitoring can help to counteract this though.

In addition to keeping spacecraft operational, communicating between Earth and space can be challenging. Depending on the state of the atmosphere, interference from other signals and the environment, there may be a lot of communications difficulties that a satellite needs to overcome. AI is now being used to help control satellite communication to overcome any transmission problems. These AI-enabled systems are able to determine the amount of power and frequencies that are needed to transmit data back to Earth or to other satellites. With an AI onboard, the satellite is constantly doing this so that signals can get through as the satellite continues in its orbit.

Thanks for reading this blog. Hope you guys got something new.

Written by

ARTH Learner at LinuxWorld Informatics Pvt Ltd & AL ML Developer

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store